ParaNexus is an association of paranormal researchers and paranormal investigators who conduct paranormal research and paranormal investigations involving ghosts, spirits, alien abductions, UFOs, unknown creatures, unexplained phenomena, psychic phenomena, and other mysterious events. Visitors can report a UFO sighting, hauntings, and other paranormal events via our 24 Hour Helpline. ParaNexus also offers paranormal investigator certification, paranormal certification, training, paranormal classes, and paranormal courses.
Make Me Think
To those who understand: No explanation is necessary. To those who don't understand: No explanation will suffice. - Unknown

KM EVP Classifications

By Doug Kelley, PhD, CH, CSL and Jari Mikkola, MCS, BA, CLPI • December 2007


The popular A-B-C classification system developed by Sarah Estep, Founder of the American Association—Electronic Voice Phenomena (AA-EVP), has proven to be somewhat dated in classifying Electronic Voice Phenomena (EVP) for paranormal research and understanding. The recently re-worded AA-EVP system distinguishes EVP based simply on the quality and clarity of the EVP recording. Furthermore, broad subjectivity when classifying EVP is an inherent challenge of this system. As a reminder, the AA-EVP system is:

Class A: EVP is a message that can be heard without headphones and that people can generally agree on its content.

Class B: EVP requires a headphone to distinguish message content and not everyone will agree on the message.

Class C: EVP requires headphone, often needs amplification and filtering and will seldom even be heard by others.

While the quality of the EVP recording is important, it is the potential message contained within it that is of the utmost value in discovering more about life after death. Therefore, the EVP naming conventions below approach the classification of EVP primarily from the standpoint of how meaningful they are in helping humans to understand the spirit realm and spirit psychology, rather than simply how intelligible the EVP may be (although this is included). Please note that EVP by definition are voices and/or sounds captured on recorded media and not voices and/or sounds heard audibly. The goal of the following conventions is to make the classifying of EVP as objective as possible in order to minimize researcher subjectivity. ParaNexus uses and recommends the KM Scale as the primary means of classifying EVP.


KM EVP Classifications

Doug Kelley & Jari Mikkola


   Spirit voice is a direct response to a human statement / question / action / activity, or spirit voices respond to each other

o    Most or all of the words are clear and intelligible, with or without headphones

o    Spirit voice communicates comprehensible and existentially meaningful expressions of thoughts/feelings/emotions/opinions/actions/intentions

Class 2 (Non-Interactive):

   Voice is a general statement and not a direct response to a statement/question/action/activity by humans

o    Most or all of the words are generally clear and understandable, with or without headphones

o    Spirit voice communicates comprehensible and existentially meaningful expressions of thoughts/feelings/emotions/opinions/actions/intentions

Class 3 (Non-Speech):

   Spirit voice is a sound other than the spoken word

o    Growls, screams, humming, etc.

o    Musical instruments, TV, radio, concerts, footsteps, rapping, banging, etc.

Null EVP (Valueless):

    The EVP contains nothing of value in understanding the spirit realm or spirit psychology

o    Words are unintelligible, with or without headphones

o    Spirit voice does not communicate comprehensible and existentially meaningful expressions of thoughts/feelings/emotions/opinions/actions/intentions, although the word(s) may be intelligible


Selected EVP Examples

"That was me" (12 seconds - Context Version) CLASS 1 EVP

"That was me" (1 second - Short Version)

This recording was taken at the Polk County Historical Museum in Bartow, FL, on September 23, 2006, a couple of minutes before midnight. It was recorded during a séance conducted in the third floor break room. This voice cannot be attributed to anyone in the room. It was recorded on an Olympus VN-480 Digital Audio Recorder.

"Can and See You" (2 seconds) CLASS 1.5 EVP

This recording cannot be explained or attributed to the two women talking (one was SPIRITeam co-founder Tracy Kelley). It was misplaced in the conversational topic and the words don't seem to make sense as part of the conversation. It is very loud and distinct for an EVP, and whether or not it is genuine is inconclusive at this time. What makes it even more strange is that it sounds like Tracy's voice, but again it is misplaced in the conversation as she had asked a question and was waiting for the client to answer. Tracy is certain that she did not say it. Very little of the before and after is included due to the sensitive nature of the conversation. It was recorded on an Olympus VN-480 Digital Audio Recorder.

Guttural Sound? (4.5 seconds) CLASS 3 EVP

This recording came from the same investigation as the "Can and See You" EVP above and occurred 6 seconds prior. It sounds like some kind of weird animal or a door creaking (compare the following audio clips). We made attempts to recreate the sound, but could not nor find its source. We have no idea what caused it or where it came from. We did not hear it during the time it was recorded. It may not be paranormal in nature, but it is certainly unexplained. It was recorded on an Olympus VN-480 Digital Audio Recorder.

Bedroom Door Creaking  (For Comparison)

Entertainment Center Door Creaking (For Comparison)

Whisper? (2.5 seconds) NULL EVP

This potential EVP was obtained on an investigation that yielded few other results and no real corresponding evidence (such as cold spots, etc.). It's cadence was very different from the regular surrounding noise, and it is unintelligible. It was recorded on a micro cassette recorder. The recording was cleaned up with EQ, negative gain, and Normalization, but it is still rather noisy. 


How to Classify EVPs with the KM System

Click on Chart to Enlarge

© 2007 by Doug Kelley & Jari Mikkola. All Rights Reserved.