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Casting Light Into the Shadows
Submitted By: Date: October 25, 2009, 07:53:02 PM Views: 4593
Summary: A Historical and Theological look at Modern Demonology


Many times I have been asked what would possibly possess me (no pun intended) to write such an article about such a “dark” subject?  Well to be brutally honest, there are a couple of reasons: A – I was asked if I would; and B – I don’t particularly see topics such as this as “dark”. On the contrary, they are very much misunderstood, misrepresented, and the source of unnecessary fear and conjecture.

I have often been asked, as well, if I personally believe in demon’s and the like.  The fast answer is, no.  Not in the literal sense of the term at any rate. Good and bad are evident in all aspect of society with both being ingrained in the human condition.  Demons, devils, and all things deemed as evil, to me, are nothing more than religious constructs, based on these lesser socially accepted aspects of human behaviour throughout history.  A quick example of social acceptance of these teachings could be the often coined phrase, “the devil made me do it”.

What is included in the following pages in an account of “demon’s”, and “evil” entities as recorded throughout the ages, in essence a theological history lesson, in order to cast light into the shadows of all things evil as documented in numerous belief systems.
The greatest evil that exists in humanity today, are the demons within one’s own mind. There is no room for fear mongering within the paranormal community and anyone who believes otherwise has no right to consider themselves true researchers. They are nothing more than thrill seekers. To play on a person’s fear of the unknown and their belief’s is morally unacceptable and should not be tolerated.
So with the public service announcements out of the way, I welcome you all as we cast some light into the shadows, educate and dispel the demons that have haunted all societies throughout the ages by looking at the historical upbringings.


A Primitive View of Gods and Devils

CHAPTER TWO Cultures and Beliefs
Assyria and Akkadia
Babylon and Sumer
Iranian Demonology
Jewish Demonology
Christian Demonology
Greek Demonology
Tibetan Demonology
The Bible

Angels and Demons, Legend and Lore
The Nature of Demons
Freedom on Earth
Role of Demons
Evil spirits
In pre-Islamic Arab culture
In Islam
In New Age / Shamanism
In science Hypothetical Demons
Real Demons
Names and Classifications
Psellus' classification of demons
Binsfeld's classification of demons
Guazzo's classification of demons
Michaelis' classification of demons
Barrett's classification of demons
Classification by month
Classification by office
The Numbers of the Beast(s)
Periods of Increased Demon Activity

A primitive view of Gods and Devils

The evil deity known as the Devil is not universal, but certain characteristics of his can be found in the God(s) of every religion. Some of these are iconographic similarities, others relate to the god's function within the mythos.

To understand the emergence of the Devil as the personification of evil, it is necessary to consider the divine personages in world religions who prefigured him. In general, a demon may be defined as a malicious spirit who does harm to human beings. In this sense, demons have been recognized since the time of the ancient Sumerians and Babylonians.

Most gods in so-called "primitive" religions are morally neutral manifestations of Ultimate Reality. In polytheistic systems, even the most powerful, "king" gods are subordinate to the single, impersonal divine principle.

There is often little or no differentiation among the Gods along the lines of good and evil; better, each divinity is capable of either good or bad, as the mood takes him. This moral ambivalence explains the existence of good and evil without resorting to a heavenly schism, in which each individual god takes a character of good or evil.

Belief in supernatural spirits has not been limited to the major Western religions. In the preliterate societies of Africa, Oceania, Asia, and the Americas, spirits were thought to inhabit the whole natural world. These spirits could act either for good or for evil, and so there was no division between them as there has been between angels and demons.

When these lines of demarcation were made, they were usually the result of political upheaval, as Margaret Murray (1) explains:

“The idea of dividing the Power Beyond into two, one good and one evil belongs to an
advanced and sophisticated religion. In the more primitive cults the deity is in himself the author of all, whether good or bad. The monotheism of early religions is very marked, each little settlement or group of settlements having its one deity, male or female, whose power was coterminous with that of its worshippers. Polytheism appears to have arisen with the amalgamation of tribes, each with its own deity. When a tribe whose deity was male coalesced with a tribe whose deity was female, the union of the peoples was symbolized by the marriage of their gods.

When by peaceful infiltration a new god ousted an old one, he was said to be the son of his
predecessor. But when the invasion was warlike the conquering deity was invested with all good attributes while the god of the vanquished took a lower place and was regarded by the conquerors as the producer of evil, and was consequently often more feared than their own legitimate deity.

In ancient Egypt the fall from the position of a high god to that of a "devil" is well exemplified in the god Setekh [Seth or Set], who in early times was as much a giver of all good as Osiris, but later was so execrated that, except in the city of his special cult, his name and image were rigorously destroyed.(2)”

(1) Margaret Alice Murray a prominent British anthropologist and Egyptologist, known for her contributions to Egyptology and the study of folklore.(wiki)

(2) As the peoples of the arid Upper Egypt, worshippers of Seth, were united with the Nile-dwelling adherents to Osiris and Horus, it was necessary for some resolution of the religious conflict to take place. In some places, the divine twins Horus and Seth were worshipped together as one god with two heads. However, Seth eventually came
to be regarded as inferior and evil but remained a representation of the monistic divine principle. The latter solution better explained the continual conflict between the forces of good and evil, and so foreshadowed later dualistic religious systems.

From certain cuneiform texts, which are more especially described as "religious", it appears that besides the public and official cult of the "twelve great gods" and their subordinate divinities, the Assyrians indulged in magic and sorcery.

These "religious" texts together with a mass of talismanic inscriptions on cylinders and amulets prove the presence of an exceedingly rich demonology. Below the greater and lesser gods there was a huge lore of spirits, some of them good and beneficent and some of them evil and hurtful. Moreover, these spirits were described and classified with an exactness and method, which leads some to liken the arrangement to that of the choirs and orders of our own angelic hierarchy.

The antiquity and importance of this secret religion, with its magic and incantations of the good spirits or evil demons, may be gathered from the fact that by order of King Assurbanipal his scribes made several copies of a great magical work according to an exemplar which had been preserved from a remote antiquity in the priestly school of Erech in Chaldea.

This work consisted of three books, the first of which is entirely consecrated to incantations, conjurations, and imprecations against the evil spirits.


Cultures and Beliefs

Assyria and Akkadia

These cuneiform books, it must be remembered, are really written on clay tablets. And each of the tablets of these first books which have come
down to us ends with the title, "Tablet No. - of the Evil Spirits".

Besides being known by the generic name of udukku -- "spirit" -- a demon is called more distinctly ecimmu, or maskimmu. One special class of these spirits was the sedu, or divine bull, which is represented in the well-known figure of a man-headed bull so common on the Assyrian monuments.

This name, it may be remarked, is probably the source of the Hebrew word for demon. The Assyrian sedu, it is true, was more commonly a beneficent or tutelary spirit. But this is hardly an obstacle to the derivation, for the good spirits of one nation were often regarded as evil by men of rival races.

Babylon and Sumer

In ancient Babylon, demonology had an influence on even the most mundane elements of life, from petty annoyances to the emotions of love and hatred. The numerous demonic spirits were given charge over various parts of the human body, one for the head, one for the neck, and so on. In present-day Egypt, the ubiquitous jinn are believed to be so densely distributed that acts such as pouring water unto the ground are accompanied by seeking the permission of a potentially dampened spirit.

The culture of the Mesopotamian valley was particularly rich in demon lore as Mesopotamians viewed themselves as under constant attack from evil on all sides.

Demons were usually the spirits of natural forces such as fire, plagues, droughts, infant crib death, and diseases, and often took the form of fantastically-shaped creatures made up of a conglomeration of parts from dangerous or dreaded living things such as scorpions, serpents, lions, hawks.

For example, Pazuzu, the Sumerian demon who attained celebrity status after his appearance in the horror film The Exorcist, is a demon of disease that has four wings, the clawed feet of a hawk, and a snarling lion-like face.

Their only recourse was to fight against them with magic. They placed special bowls inscribed with potent word charms upside down under the foundations of their houses to catch demons and prevent them from entering the houses through the ground. They also made amulets with aversive verses against specific demons, such as those that might threaten the life of women during childbirth.

During their period of Babylonian captivity, the ancient Hebrews absorbed many Sumerian
demons into their own folklore, and over time these were transmuted into uniquely Jewish demons, such as Lilith, the demon who strangles children in their cribs and visits solitary men in their beds to provoke nocturnal emissions. Lilith began her life as a class of Babylonian demon known as the lilitu. Later, she became the first wife of Adam but refused any obedience to God.

Iranian Demonology

In many ways one of the most remarkable demonologies is that presented in the Avesta (q.v.), the sacred book of the Mazdean religion of Zoroaster. Zoroastrianism is the doctrine or teaching of Zarathustra that is also known as Mazdaism, Bah Din, Parsiism, and Fire-worship.

The doctrine was founded by the Persian prophet Zoroaster or Zarathustra about 720-541 BC. While still a young man he began having conversations with Ahura Mazda (the "Lord of Wisdom") from whom he received revelations.

In this ancient religion, which unlike that of the Assyrians, was not popular from the beginning but still exists in the Parsee community, the war between light and darkness, good and evil is eternal. The mythological system was based on the Persian worship of the ahuras, good deities eternally at war with the evil daevas.

It must be noticed that these deities come from the Aryan polytheistic paganism which made it later attractive to the Greeks. Plato, Aristotle and other Greek thinkers took great interests in some of the doctrines. To Plato, the creator of the Universe, Demiurge would be adopted by the Gnostics, and other heretical sects, as the false-god that created the world and all physical matter, and also authored the Scriptures

The Gnostics believed that the sins of man keep them under the control of Demiurge, and his army of false-angels, the Archons.

True religious dualism posits the existence of two absolute cosmic principles, wholly independent of one another. Neither can be omnipotent, since they must by definition limit one another. In absolute dualism, there can be no single, ultimate divine principle.

The novelty of Zoroaster's system is that it does away with the morally
indefinable conception of the single divine principle in favor of a cosmic struggle
between the good Lord, Ahura Mazda (Ormzad) and Ahriman (Anro Mainyu), the
cruel Evil Spirit, the Demon of Demons (Daevanam Daeva).

Ahriman is served by many demons whose names have been adopted later by
the Jews: Azazel, Lilith, Rahab, Leviathan. Zoroaster preached devotion to the absolute good, and prophesied that, in the fullness of time, evil would be utterly destroyed by the Lord.

Although there are marked differences between the demons of the Avesta and
the devil in Scripture and Christian theology (for Christian doctrine is free from the dualism of the Mazdean system), the essential struggle between good and evil is still the same in both cases. And the pictures of the holiness and fidelity of Zoroaster when he is assailed by the temptations and persecutions of Anro Mainyus and his demons may well suggest some faint analogy with the great scene of the temptation of Christ in the wilderness.

The important part played by the demons in the Mazdean system may be seen from the title of the Vendidad, which is the largest and most complete part of the Avesta, so much so that when the sacred book is written or printed without the commentaries it is generally known as Vendidad Sade which means something that is "given against the demons”.

Jewish Demonology

While historical Judaism never "officially" recognized a rigid set of doctrines about demons, many scholars believe that its post-exilic concepts of eschatology, angelology, and demonology were influenced by Zoroastrianism. Some, however, believe that these concepts were received as part of the Kabbalistic tradition passed down from Adam, Noah, and the Hebrew patriarchs.

Because demonology never became an essential feature of Jewish theology, the reality of demons was never questioned by the Talmudists and late rabbis; most accepted their existence as a fact. Nor did most of the medieval thinkers question their reality. Only rationalists like Maimonides and Abraham ibn Ezra, clearly denied their existence. Their point of view eventually became the mainstream Jewish understanding.

Rabbinical demonology has three classes of, demons, though they are scarcely separable one from another. There were the shedim, the mazziaim ("harmers"), and the ruiin ("evil spirits"). Besides these there were lilin ("night spirits"),("shade", or "evening spirits"), ("midday spirits"), and ("morning spirits"), as well as the "demons that bring famine" and "such as cause storm and earthquake" (Targ. Yer. to Deuteronomy xxxii. 24 and Numbers vi. 24; Targ. to Cant. iii. 8, iv. 6; Eccl. ii. 5; Ps. xci. 5, 6.)

While Zoroaster and his Mazdaist followers are the first to have embodied the principle of evil within one personality, the concept of the Devil is of definite Hebrew origin. Early Judaism was, of course, utterly monistic. The god Yahweh encompassed both good and evil, mercy and justice, yet could not be assigned a specific moral character.

As in Zoroastrianism, however, the evil in the god's nature was eventually differentiated from him and ascribed to a malignant spirit. As always, the Devil is a figure that actively inflicts suffering and pursues wholesale destruction for its own sake.

During the second exodus, the Jews were confronted with evil in a new, more powerful way, and the existence of the Devil made their suffering more explicable.

When we turn from the Avesta to the Sacred Books of the Jews, that is to say to the canonical Scripture, we are struck by the absence of an elaborate demonology such as that of the Persians and Assyrians.

There are large descriptions of the hosts of heaven, the seraphim and cherubim, and other spirits who stand before the throne or minister to men, but the mention of the evil spirits is comparatively slight. Not that their existence is ignored, for we have the temptation by the serpent, in which Jews as well as Christians recognize the work of the Evil Spirit.12

In Job, again, Satan appears as the tempter and the accuser of the just man; in Kings it is he who incites David to murder the prophet; in Zacharias he is seen in his office of accuser. Saul is afflicted or apparently possessed, by an evil spirit. The scapegoat is sent into the wilderness to Azazael, who is supposed by some to be a

A further development of the demonology of the Old Testament is seen in the Book of Tobias, which though not included in the Jewish Canon was written in Hebrew or Chaldean, and a version in the latter language has been recovered among some rabbinical writings. Here we have the demon Asmodeus who plays the part assigned to demons in many ethnic demonologies and folk-legends and became a prominent figure in later Hebrew demonology.

The rabbinical demonology of the Talmud and Midrashim is very far from the reticence and sobriety of the canonical writings in regard to this subject. Some modern critics explain this rich growth of demonology among the Jews by the effects of the Captivity, and regard it as the result of Babylonian or Persian influence. The influence of Apocalyptical sects during the captivity makes it a clear case of appropriation.

The rabbinical demonologists have carefully selected a number of demons from external systems and drew forth by means of their subtle and ingenious methods of exegesis in order to fill the missing point of the Scriptures.

Thus, Lilith who was for the Babylonians a mysterious female night spirit apparently living in desolate places, became in Jewish mythology the demon wife of Adam and the mother of demons.


Some branches of Buddhism affirm the existence of Hells peopled by demons who torment sinners and tempt mortals to sin, or who seek to thwart their enlightenment, with a demon named Mara as chief tempter. Most of these "demons" are considered to be representations of mental obstructions. Hinduism contains traditions of combats between its gods and various adversaries, such as the combat of Indra and the asura Vritra.

Christian Demonology

Whatever may be said of this theory of the Rabbis, that the air is full of demons, and that men are in danger of receiving them into their systems it may certainly be said that in the days of the early Christians the air was dangerously full of demonologies, and that men were in peculiar peril of adopting erroneous doctrines on this matter.

Theories were everywhere coming from old Oriental religions to take roots in the very heart of the Roman world. The first Christian converts and the first Christian teachers were for the most part either Jews or Greeks, and many of them were living in the midst of those who professed some or other of the old pagan religions. Some of the earliest ecclesiastical writers such as St. Justin, Origen, or Tertullian were not very clever in their treatment of this topic and indulged in any superstition they could meet.

Moreover, monks and hermits who live in privation, solitude and sexual frustration were easy prey for all the phantasms and hallucinations that can visit an isolated man. The perversity of the Devil was held responsible for all the “trials” they had to face along their retreat.

Gregory the Great with his “Dialogs” in 600, but essentially Athanase, who wrote “The life of St Antony” in 362 give us a luxury of details about the trials of the famous hermit (251 – 356).

The early heresies had been cast out, and theological speculation had been directed in the true way by the decision of the Fifth Ecumenical Council (545), which condemned certain Origenist errors on the subject of demons.

There is, of course, a true doctrine about demons or evil spirits, namely, that portion of Catholic theology which speaks of the creation and fall of the rebel angels, and of the various ways in which these fallen spirits are permitted to tempt and afflict the children of men. But while the theologians of the great scholastic period were setting forth and elucidating the Catholic doctrine concerning angels and devils there was a darker side in the popular superstitions, and in the men who at all times continued to practice the black arts of magic and witchcraft.

In the troubled period of the Renaissance and the Reformation there appears to have been a fresh outbreak of old superstitions and evil practices, and for a time both Catholic and Protestant countries were disturbed by the strange beliefs and the strange doings of real or supposed professors of the black arts and by the credulous and cruel persecutors who sought to suppress them. This period was called “the Burning Times”

Greek Demonology

Greek philosophers such as Porphyry, who claimed influence from Platonism, and the fathers of the Christian Church, held that the world was pervaded with spirits, the latter of whom advanced the belief that demons received the worship directed at pagan gods.

Greek demonology bears a huge heritage to the former civilizations of the Indus. Despite being fully polytheist, the Greek mythology introduces many myths and monsters that will be integrated into the late Jewish and Christian demonology: the Titans, Pan, the Hydra, Mermaids ….

Orphism which supports the idea that men are born from the ashes of Titans is very close to the Enoch interpretation.

Tibetan Demonology

Often misunderstood or misinterpreted, Tibetan demonology is tightly integrated into Buddhism and the main local branches. Nevertheless, the richness and scope of the still-know iconography is a living proof that it was the pre-Buddhist Bön-Po tradition that gave birth to all those terrifying monsters.

Today considered as “angry” form of divinities and pure emptiness, they were previously fearsome demons and gods who ruled those mysterious heights of the planet.

The Bible
The Perfect Being

Under the figure of "King of Tyrus," Ezekiel declares that this great created being "had the seal
of perfection, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty."

"Son of man, take up a lamentation for the king of Tyre, and say to him, 'Thus says the Lord God: "You were the
seal of perfection, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty.

You were in Eden, the garden of God; every precious stone was your covering: The sardius, topaz, and diamond, beryl, onyx, and jasper, sapphire, turquoise, and emerald with gold. The workmanship of your timbrels and pipes was prepared for you on the day you were created.

You were the anointed cherub who covers; I established you; you were on the holy mountain of God; you walked back and forth in the midst of fiery stones.

You were perfect in your ways from the day you were created, till iniquity was found in you.

Ezekiel 28:12–19 describes Satan’s original state as the anointed cherub who was not only a created being, but created perfect (vss. 12-13). He enjoyed the highest position and honor in the presence of God (28:14, 16).

Further, Isaiah spoke of him as Lucifer, “star of the morning , son of the dawn” - Isaiah

He was on the holy mountain of God and every precious stone was his covering. He was set there as "the anointed covering cherub" by God and walked up and down in the midst of stones of fire. He was perhaps the appointed guardian of the holiness of God, probably over this original planet earth. By the abundance of your trading you became filled with violence within, and you sinned; therefore I cast you as a profane thing out of the mountain of God; and I destroyed you, O covering cherub, from the midst of the fiery stones. 17 Your heart was lifted up because of your beauty; you corrupted your wisdom for the sake of your
splendor . . ." Ezekiel 28:12

Satan and the Bible

In the New Testament and Christianity "Demon" has a number of meanings, all related to the idea of a spirit that inhabited a place, or that accompanied a person. Whether such a daemon was benevolent or malevolent, the Greek word meant something different from the later medieval notions of 'demon', and scholars debate the time in which first century usage by Jews and Christians in its original Greek sense became transformed to the later medieval sense. It should be noted that some denominations asserting Christian faith also include, exclusively or otherwise, fallen angels as de facto demons; this definition also covers the "sons of God" described in Genesis who abandoned their posts in heaven to mate with human women on Earth before the Deluge (Genesis 6:2, 4, also see Nephilim).

In the Gospel of Mark, Jesus casts out many demons, or evil spirits, from those who are afflicted with various ailments (such as epileptic seizures). The imagery is very clear: Jesus is far superior to the power of demons over the beings that they inhabit, and he is able to free these victims by commanding and casting out the demons, by binding them, and forbidding them to return. Jesus also apparently lends this power to some of his disciples, who rejoice at their new found ability to cast out all demons. By way of contrast, in the book of Acts a group of Judaist exorcists known as the sons of Sceva try to cast out a very powerful spirit without believing in or knowing Jesus, but fail with disastrous consequences. However Jesus himself never fails to vanquish a demon, no matter how powerful (see the account of the demon-possessed man at Gerasim), and even defeats Satan in the wilderness (see Gospel of Matthew).

There is a description in the Book of Revelation 12:7-17 of a battle between God's army and Satan's followers, and their subsequent expulsion from Heaven to earth to persecute humans — although this event is related as being foretold and taking place in the future. In Luke 10:18 it is mentioned that a power granted by Jesus to control demons made Satan "fall like lightning from heaven."

Augustine of Hippo's reading of Plotinus, in The City of God (ch.11) is ambiguous as to whether daemons had become 'demonized' by the early 5th century: "He [Plotinus] also states that the blessed are called in Greek eudaimones, because they are good souls, that is to say, good demons, confirming his opinion that the souls of men are demons. 17

The contemporary Roman Catholic Church unequivocally teaches that angels and demons are real personal beings, not just symbolic devices. The Catholic Church has a cadre of officially sanctioned exorcists which perform many exorcisms each year.

The exorcists of the Catholic Church teach that demons attack humans continually but that afflicted persons can be effectively healed and protected either by the formal rite of exorcism, authorized to be performed only by bishops and those they designate, or by prayers of deliverance which any Christian can offer for themselves or others. At various times in Christian history, attempts have been made to classify these beings according to various proposed demonic hierarchies.

According to most Christian demonology demons will be eternally punished and never reconciled with God. Other theories postulate a Universal reconciliation, in which Satan, the fallen angels, and the souls of the dead that were condemned to Hell are reconciled with God. This doctrine is today often associated with the Unification Church. Origen, Jerome and Gregory of Nyssa also mentioned this possibility.

In contemporary Christianity, demons are generally considered to be angels who fell from grace by rebelling against God. Some contest that this view, championed by Origen, Augustine and John Chrysostom, arose during the 6th century. Another theory that may have preceded or co-existed with the hypothesis of fallen angels was that demons were ostracized from Heaven for the primary sin of mating with mortal women, giving rise to a race of half-human giants known as the Nephilim. That theory is accepted by some contemporary Christian sects.

There are still others who say that the sin of the angels was pride and disobedience. It seems quite certain that these were the sins that caused Satan's downfall (Ezek. 28). If this be the true view then we are to understand the words, "estate" or "principality" in Deuteronomy 32:8 and Jude 6 ("And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.") as indicating that instead of being satisfied with the dignity once for all assigned to them under the Son of God, they aspired higher.

There is no full account of Satan given in any one place, and the Scripture teaching on this topic can only be ascertained by combining a number of scattered notices from Genesis to Apocalypse, and reading them in the light of patristic and theological tradition.

Almost absent in the Old Testament, the Devil is mentioned 188 times in the
New Testament:
62 as a “demon”
36 as “Satan”
33 as the “Devil”
37 as a “Beast”
13 as a “Dragon”
7 as “Belzeebuth”


Angels and Demons Legend and Lore

The Nature of Demons

Demons are spirit beings who do not have a body of flesh and blood. Since demons are “fallen angels”, like angels they are immaterial and not usually subject to human visibility or our other senses. They are dwellers in an unseen world. To manifest themselves among men, they must possess or control a physical body of a person or an animal. As they possessed people, their influence had its effect in several different areas.

In the Dark Ages and Middle Ages, demons were thought able to travel on the earth invisibly, but to assume physical bodies at will. The same was understood concerning angels. This has a certain logic. In order to tempt human beings, demons need to remain invisible while they whisper seductive words or cause opportunities to commit sin to fall across the paths of their intended victims. But in order to murder their victims once their temptations succeed, demons need to have teeth and talons capable of ripping flesh.

The modern view of demons, among those who believe demons in the Christian sense to exist, are that demons are usually invisible but are capable of revealing their forms at their pleasure.

It is not so widely accepted that demons can make their forms material. The modern demon is thought to punish those who give in to its temptations by possessing the victim's body and using it against the victim and the loved ones of the victim.

Frequently the possessing demon causes the victim to commit a horrible crime, such as the mass murder of elementary school children, before committing suicide.


According to the Scripture, demons are fallen angels but their names often reveal that they derive from pre-Christian Gods demonized by the early fathers of the Church. In Christian writings demons in the strictest sense -- those fallen angels who remained loyal to Lucifer in hell -- were continually being confused with pagan deities and with nature spirits. Thus we find mention of the demon Satyr who incites men and women to lust, and the demon Theutus, who induces the urge to gamble for money with cards or dice.

The satyr is a nature spirit of Greek mythology, and Theutus is a degenerate variation on the name of the Egyptian god Thoth, who was associated by the Greeks with numbers, and by extension with money. In dealing with the pagan system of idolatry, the apostle Paul declared by inspiration of God that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice to idols

"they sacrifice to demons, and not to God; and I do not want you to become sharers in demons. You cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of the demons; you cannot partake of the table of the Lord, and the table of demons" (1 Cor. 10:10-21 ).

The Bible thus clearly reveals that behind every pagan idol there is a demon and that the sacrifices offered to such idols are offered to demons and not the one and only true God. There was the table of demons and the table of the Lord, and expressed fellowship with one or the other.

Associated with the whole satanic system of idolatry were many other demon activities about which Moses of old warned the children of Israel. In the book of Deuteronomy we read:
"When thou art come in the land which the Lord they God giveth thee, thou shalt not learn to do after the abominations of those nations. There shall not be found among you any that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire, or that useth divination, or an observer of times, or an enchanter, or a witch, or a charmer, or a consulter with familiar spirits, or a wizard, or a necromancer. For all who do such things are an abomination unto the Lord" (Deut.

Freedom on Earth

Contrary to popular opinion, the Bible reveals that Satan and some of his demons were not confined to hell after their initial expulsion from heaven. Indeed, the Old Testament shows that, before the first coming of Yeshua the Messiah, Satan and the demons continued to have access to the very throne of God.

Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan also came among them. Job 1:6

Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord, and Satan came also among them to present himself before the Lord. Job 2:1

Then he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the Lord, and Satan standing at his right hand to accuse him. Zechariah 3:1

If some demons are obviously free to propagate evil in the world, there are Scriptures which indicate that a portion of the evil angels are currently restrained in a type of spiritual prison.

And the angels who did not keep their own position, but left their proper dwelling, he has kept in eternal chains in deepest darkness for the judgment of the great Day. Jude 6

For if God did not spare the angels who sinned, but cast them down to hell and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved for judgment; II Peter 2.4

. . . He went and preached to the spirits in prison, 20 who formerly were disobedient, when once the Divine long suffering waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared, in which a few, that is, eight souls, were saved through water. I Peter 3:19

Clearly, the Bible teaches that there are at least two different groups of fallen angels; those who can move around freely and those who are currently locked up in "chains of darkness."


To modern eyes, medieval images of demons may appear comical and quaint. You should realize that these images, and the understanding that Christian demonologists had about them, were merely unsophisticated attempts to come to terms with real, perceived phenomena of daily life.

Demons in one form or another have been a constant fixture of folklore and myth in all cultures around the world since the dawn of history. While this is not proof that these folk beliefs are literally true, it suggests that a core of truth exists that has sustained and defined the myths of demons over the centuries. It is nothing short of intellectual arrogance to leave unexamined so universal an aspect of human experience.

“If he was as beautiful then as now he is ugly, when he lifted his brow against his Maker, well must all grieving proceed from him. Oh how great a marvel did it seem to me, when I saw three faces on his head! ... Beneath each one came out two great wings....They did not have
feathers; their mode was like a bat's....With six eyes he was weeping, and down three chins
dripped the tears and the bloody slobber. In each of his mouths he was breaking a sinner... “

Dante’s Inferno
The other shape If shape it might be call'd, that shape had none, Distinguishable in member, joint, or limb; Or substance might be call'd that shadow seem'd; For each seem'd either; black it stood as night, Fierce as ten furies, terrible as Hell, And shook a dreadful dart; what seem'd his head The likeness of a kingly crown had on. Satan was now at hand; and from his seat the monster, moving onward, came as fast with horrid strides; Hell trembled as he strode."

John Milton’s Paradise
The truth is that demons are more likely to appear as attractive. They love to masquerade, so even Christians are fooled by them. Paul warned them that even "Satan himself masquerades as an angel of light. It is not surprising, then, if his servants masquerade as servants of righteousness" (2 Corinthians 11:14-15).

In traditional black magic, demons have usually two shapes : a monstrous one and a pleasant one. The pleasant one can be a beautiful woman or an elegant good-looking man. When a demon is of high authority, it appears in human form. Demons in animal forms are of lesser importance. Still less in rank are demons that come in the shapes of insects or plants. And last in importance are demons that appear as objects regardless of what is claimed for him.

Role of Demons

Just as angels are the agents of God who act with divine authority to do good works among men, so demons are the agents of Lucifer who act with infernal authority to do works of evil. Indeed, in Jewish, Islamic and Christian mythology, Lucifer was himself once an angel of heaven who defied God.

Lucifer seeks to harass God by plaguing mankind with a multitude of troubles, and by inciting human beings to defy God. He uses his fallen angels as his agents, sending them abroad across the face of the world to incite and commit evil. Every time he succeeds in inducing a human to defy God, Lucifer gains another soldier in his rebellious army.

Evil spirits

On the account of the Hindu theory of reincarnation and transmigration of souls according to one's Karma, other kinds of demons can also be enlisted. If a human does extremely horrible and sinful karmas in his life, his soul (Atman) will, upon his death, directly turn into an evil ghostly spirit, many kinds of which are recognized in the later Hindu texts. These demons could be Grimnex Vetalas, Pishachas, Bhutas etc.

In pre-Islamic Arab culture

Pre-Islamic mythology does not discriminate between gods and demons. The jinn are considered as divinities of inferior rank, having many human attributes: they eat, drink, and procreate their kind, sometimes in conjunction with human beings. The jinn smell and lick things, and have a liking for remnants of food. In eating they use the left hand. Usually they haunt waste and deserted places, especially the thickets where wild beasts gather. Cemeteries and dirty places are also favorite abodes. When appearing to man, jinn sometimes assume the forms of beasts and sometimes those of men.

Generally, jinn are peaceable and well disposed toward men. Many a pre-Islamic poet was believed to have been inspired by good jinn, but there are also evil jinn, who contrive to injure men.

In Islam

Islam recognizes the existence of the jinn. Jinns are not the "genies" of modern lore, and they are not all evil, as demons are described in Christianity, but as creatures that co-exist with humans.

In Islam the evil jinns are referred to as the shayatin, or devils, and Iblis (Satan) is their chief. Iblis was the first Jinn who disobeyed Allah. According to Islam, the jinn are made from the light of flame of fire deviation of "light" (and mankind is made of clay).

According to the Qur'an, Iblis was once a pious servant of Allah, but when Allah created Adam from clay, Iblis became very jealous, and arrogant and disobeyed Allah. Adam was the first man, and man was the greatest creation of Allah. Iblis could not stand this, and refused to acknowledge a creature made of "dirt" (man). Allah condemned Iblis to be punished after death eternally in the hellfire. Allah had created hell.

Iblis asked Allah if he may live to the last day and have the ability to mislead mankind and jinns, Allah said that Iblis may only mislead those whom have forsaken Allah. Allah then turned Iblis's countenance into horridness and condemned him to only have powers of trickery.

Adam and Eve (Hawwa in Arabic) were both together misled by Iblis into eating the forbidden fruit, and consequently fell from the garden of Eden to Earth. The word "genie" comes from the Arabic jinn. This is not surprising considering the story of `Ala' ad-Din, (anglicized as Aladdin), passed through Arabian merchants en route to Europe.

In New Age / Shamanism

Carlos Castaneda referred to demonic predators called “flyers” which have the appearance of frightening dark shadows and which vampirize human energy. According to this view, ancient humans were complete, with much greater energetic resources than effete, decadent, modern humans possess.

At the time when agriculture was invented the flyers gave human beings their mind (constant internal dialogue of beliefs, ideas, social mores, expectations, and dreams of success or failure). By playing on this self-reflection, sucking the angry and worried energy it generates, the flyers began to farm human beings for energy, just as humans began farming animals.

Modern humans are the hypnotized slaves of these flyers; and the pseudo concerns of modern society are a flyer mechanism of mind control.

In science Hypothetical Demons

In thought experiments scientists occasionally imagine entities with special abilities in order to pose tough intellectual challenges or to highlight apparent paradoxes. Examples include:

Descartes’ malicious demon - Cartesian skepticism (also called methodological scepticism) advocates the doubting of all things which cannot be justified through logic. Descartes uses three arguments to cast doubt on our ability to objectively know: The dream argument, the deceiving God argument, and the malicious demon argument.

Since our senses cannot put us in contact with external objects themselves, but only with our mental images of such objects, we can have no absolute certainty that anything exists in the external world. In the evil demon argument Descartes proposes an entity who is capable of deceiving us to such a degree that we have reason to doubt the totality of what our senses tell us.

Laplace's demon - A hypothetical all-knowing entity (later called "Laplace's Demon") who knows the precise location and momentum of every atom in the universe, and therefore could use Newton's laws to reveal the entire course of cosmic events, past and future. Based upon the philosophical proposition of causal determinism.

Maxwell's demon - A demon able to distinguish between fast and slow moving molecules. If this demon only let fast moving molecules through a trapdoor to a container, the temperature inside the container would increase without any work being applied. Such a scenario would violate the second law of thermodynamics.

Real Demons?

M. Scott Peck, an American psychiatrist, wrote two books on the subject. Peck describes in some detail several cases involving his patients. In People of the Lie: The Hope For Healing Human Evil he gives some identifying characteristics for evil persons whom he classifies as having a character disorder. In Glimpses of the Devil, A Psychiatrist's Personal Accounts of Possession, Exorcism, and Redemption Peck goes into significant detail describing how he became interested in exorcism in order to debunk the “myth” of possession by evil spirits – only to be convinced otherwise after encountering two real-word cases which did not fit into any category known to psychology or psychiatry. Peck came to the conclusion that possession was a rare phenomenon related to evil. Possessed people are not actually evil; they are doing battle with the forces of evil. His observations on these cases are listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (IV) of the American Psychiatric Association.

Although Peck’s earlier work was met with widespread popular acceptance, his work on the topics of evil and possession has generated significant debate and derision. Much was made of his association with (and admiration for) the controversial Malachi Martin, a Roman Catholic priest and a former Jesuit, despite the fact that Peck consistently called Martin a liar and manipulator. Other criticisms leveled against Peck include misdiagnoses based upon a lack of knowledge regarding dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder), and a claim that he had transgressed the boundaries of professional ethics by attempting to persuade his patients into accepting Christianity.

Names and Classifications

Lists of demons occur in some of the darker grimoires, notable among them the Lemegeton or Lesser Key of Solomon. This is a collection of tracts about ritual evocation and spirit magic. The first tract is named The Goetia and consists of a descriptive list of the seventy-two demons which were bound by King Solomon with his magic seal ring in a vessel of brass or copper, and cast into a lake (or the sea -- accounts differ).

The Testament of Solomon is an Old Testament pseudepigraphical work, purportedly written by King Solomon, in which Solomon mostly describes particular demons whom he enslaved to help build the temple, the questions he put to them about their deeds and how they could be thwarted, and their answers, which provide a kind of self-help manual against demonic activity. The date is very dubious, perhaps 1st century to 3rd century, certainly the oldest work surviving particularly concerned with individual demons.

Psellus' classification of demons

This is a classification of demons prepared by Michael Psellus in the 11th century and that undoubtedly was an inspiration for the one Francesco Maria Guazzo prepared later.

Avoid daylight and are invisible to people
Demons of fire, which dwell far from us...
pina's classification of demons
Alfonso de Spina, in 1467, prepared a classification of demons based on several criteria:

Demons of fate
Incubi and succubi
Wandering groups or armies of demons
Demons that are born from the union of a demon with a human being.
Liar and mischievous demons
Demons that attack the saints
Demons that try to induce old women to attend Sabbaths

This classification is somewhat capricious and it is difficult to find a criterion for it. It seems that Spina was inspired by several legends and stories. The drudes belong to German folklore. Familiars, goblins, and other mischievous demons belong to the folklore of most European countries.

The belief in incubi and succubae (and their ability to procreate) seem to have inspired the sixth category, but it could also have been inspired in the Talmudic legend of demons having sexual intercourse with mortal women (see also Mastema).

The visions of tempting demons that some early (and not too early) saints had, perhaps inspired the ninth category (i.e. the visions of Anthony the Great). The idea of old women attending Sabbaths was common during the European Middle Age and Renaissance, and Spina mentioned it before the Malleus Maleficarum as it is possible to see.
Binsfeld's classification of demons

Binsfeld's classification of demons was prepared in 1589 by Peter Binsfeld. His demon classification based on the seven deadly sins, establishing that each one of the mentioned demons tempted people by means of one of those sins.

Lucifer: arrogance (pride)
Leviathan: envy
Amon: wrath
Belphegor: sloth (laziness)
Mammon: avarice (greed)
Beelzebub: gluttony
Asmodeus: lust

Guazzo's classification of demons

Francesco Maria Guazzo prepared this classification of demons based on a previous work by Michael Psellus. It was published in his book Compendium Maleficarum in 1608.

Demons of the superior layers of the air, which never establish a relationship with people.
Demons of the inferior layers of the air, which are responsible for storms.
Demons of earth, which dwell in fields, caves and forests.
Demons of water, which are female demons, and destroy aquatic animals.
Demons of the underground part of the earth, responsible of keeping hidden treasures,
causing earthquakes, and causing the crumbling of houses.
Demons of the night, which are black and evil. These demons avoid daylight.

Michaelis' classification of demons

In 1613 Sebastien Michaelis wrote a book, Admirable History, in which included a classification of demons as it was told to him by the demon Berith when he was exorcising a nun, according to the author. This classification is based in hierarchies, the sins by means of which the temptation is made, and includes the demons' adversaries (who suffered that temptation without falling).

Note that many demons' names are exclusively French or unknown in other catalogues. St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist are the two St. John's to whom Michaelis refers. The other saints are cited only by their name without making clear, i.e., which Francis is (of Assisi?).

First Hierarchy
Beelzebub: arrogance; adversary, St. Francis
Leviathan: attacks Christian religious beliefs; adversary, St. Peter
Asmodai: lust; adversary: St. John
Berith: murdering and blasphemy; adversary, St. Barnabas
Astaroth: laziness and vanity; adversary, St. Bartholomew
Verrin: impatience; adversary, St. Dominic. See Verrine
Gressil: impurity, uncleanness and nastiness; adversary, St. Bernard
Sonneillon: hate; adversary, St. Stephen.

Second Hierarchy
Lilith: first wife of Adam, succubus

Third Hierarchy
Belial: arrogance; adversary, St. Francis of Paula
Olivier: fierceness, greediness and envy; adversary, St. Lawrence
Jouvart: sexuality; adversary, not cited.
Barrett's classification of demons
Francis Barrett, in his book The magus (1801), offered this classification of demons,
making them princes of some evil attitude, person or thing:
Mammon: seducers
Asmodai: vile revenges
Satan: witches and warlocks
Pithius: liars and liar spirits
Belial: fraud and injustice
Merihem: pestilences and spirits that cause pestilences
Abaddon: war, evil against good
Astaroth: inquisitors and accusers

Classification by month

During the 16th century it was believed that each demon had more strength to
accomplish his mission during a special month of the year. In this way, he and his
assistants' powers would work better during that month.
Belial in January
Leviathan in February
Satan in March
Belphegor in April
Lucifer in May
Berith in June
Beelzebub in July
Astaroth in August
Thammuz in September
Baal in October
Asmodai in November
Moloch in December

The classification of demons by month seems to have astrological implications more than religious ones.

Classification by office

There were also classifications by office, like those written in several grimoires.

Le Dragon Rouge (or Grand Grimoire)
Like many works of mystical nature, Le Dragon Rouge (or the Red Dragon) claims to come from Solomon and his priests and is said to be published in 1517 by Alibeck the Egyptian. However, it was most likely written in France in the 18th century.

The grimoire details the different hosts of hell and their powers, describing how to enter a pact with them to attain the magicians' goals. The demons of hell are classified by three different tiers from Generals to Officers.

Elite, veteran members of Le Dragon Rouge bear a ring of an onyx stone with the form
of Le Dragon Rouge in red enamel for official stamping of letters between members.

Pseudomonarchia Daemonum

Pseudomonarchia Daemonum, by Johann Weyer, is a grimoire that contains a list of demons and the appropriate hours and rituals to conjure them in the name of God, Jesus and the Holy Ghost (simpler than those cited by The Lesser Key of Solomon below).

This book was written around 1583, and lists sixty-eight demons. The demons Vassago,
Seir, Dantalion and Andromalius are not listed in this book. Pseudomonarchia Daemonum does not attribute seals to the demons. Weyer said to have been inspired by another grimoire also attributed to King Solomon.

The Lesser Key of Solomon

Main article: The Lesser Key of Solomon
The Lesser Key of Solomon or Lemegeton Clavicula Salomonis is an anonymous 17th century grimoire, and one of the most popular books of demonology. The Lesser Key of Solomon contains detailed descriptions of spirits and the conjurations needed to invoke and oblige them to do the will of the conjurer (referred to as the "exorcist"). It details the protective signs and rituals to be performed, the actions necessary to prevent the spirits from gaining control, the preparations prior to the invocations, and instructions on how to make the necessary instruments for the execution of these rituals.

From Collin De Plancy's Dictionaire Infernale (1863)
* Asmodeus - The Destroyer
* Astaroth - Obtains friendship of great lords.
* Behemoth - Demon of indulgence
* Ronwe - Demon of linguel knowledge
* Urobach - Of the lower order of demons
* Andras - Grand Marquis of Hell, causes discord and quarrels
* Beelzebub - Lord of the flies

Francis Barrett's The Magus (1801)
* Mammon - Prince of temptors
* Asmodeus - Prince of vengence
* Satan - Prince of deluders
* Belzebuth - Cheif of false god
* Pytho - Prince of the spirits of deceit
* Beliel - Prince of iniquity
* Merihim - Prince of the spirits of pestilence
* Abbadon - Prince of war
* Astaroth - Prince of accusers and inquisitors

From the Grimoire of Pope Honorius:

* Lucifer - Emperor
* Beelzebub - Prince
* Astarot - Grand Duke

* Lucifuge Rofocale - Prime Minister
* Sataniachia - Grand General
* Agaliarept - General
* Fleuretty - Lieutenant Commander
* Sargantanas - Major
* Nebiros - Field Marshall

Bael , Bathim, Agares, Narbas, Pruslas, Marbas, Abigar, Loray, Poraii, Aamon, Valefar,
Barbatos, Forau, Buer, Ayperos, Gusoyn, Neuberus, Botis, Glasyabolis
Johan Weyer's Hierarchy of Hell
* Beelzebuth - Supreme Cheiftan
* Satan - Occupies second place as prince of darkness.
* Eurynomous - Prince of death
* Moloch - Prince of the land of tears
* Pluto - Prince of fire
* Baal - Commander of the armies of hell
* Lucifer - Dispenses justice
* Asmodeus - Gambling
* Baalberith - Minister of pacts and treaties
* Proserpine - Prince of demonic spirits
* Astaroth - Prince and treasurer of hell
* Nergal - Chief of secret police
* Chamos, Melchom, Behamoth, Dagon, Adramalek

Berbiguer de Terre Neuve duTthym’s «Les farfadets ou tous les démons ne sont pas
de ce monde»
* Belzebuth - Supreme Chief
* Satan - Prince without throne
* Eurynomus - Prince of death
* Moloch - Prince of the land of tears
* Rhotomago – Prince of Time
* Pluto - Prince of fire
* Pan – Prince of incubes
* Lilith – Princess of succubes
* Leonard – Great master of sabbaths
* Daalberith – Great Pontife
* Prosperine – Arch Demoness

Jean Wier’s Pseudomonarchia Daemonum's Hierarchy
* Bael - King, lord of the East, and commands 66 legions
* Forcas - President
* Beur - President and commands 50 legions
* Marchocias- Marquis and commands 30 legions

Sebastien Michaelis's Histoire admirable de la Possession et conversion d'une
penitente (1613)
* Belzebuth - pride
* Leviathan - faith
* Asmodeus - luxury
* Balberith - blasphemy and murder
* Astaroth - vanity and sloth
* Verrine - impatience
* Gresil - impurity
* Sonnillon - hate

* Carreau - mercilessness
* Carnivean - obscenity
* Oeillet - riches and wealth
* Rosier - love
* Verrier – disobedience

* Belial - arrogance
* Olivier - cruelty and greed
* Juvart - demonic possession

Peter Binsfeld's Demons of the Seven Deadly Sins (1589)
* Lucifer - pride
* Mammon - avarice
* Asmodeus - lust
* Satan - anger
* Beelzebub - gluttony
* Leviathan - envy
* Belphegore - sloth and vanity

Faust's Hierarchy of the Kingdoms:
* Beelzebub - North
* Lucifer - East
* Belial - South
* Astaroth - West
* Phlegathon – Center

Misc. Medieval Hierarchies
* Baal-beryth - Master of rituals and pacts
* Dumah - Commander of the demons of gehenna
* Meririm - Prince of air
* Rahab - Prince of oceans
* Sariel - Prince of the moon
* Mephistopholes - the Destroyer
* Lucifer Rofocale - Prime minister and Chief of the Treasury

* Adramaleck - Prince of Fire
* Carniveau - Demon of Possession
* Python - Prince of lying spirits
* Mammon - Prince of temptors, avarice, and greed
* Rimmon - Prince of lightning and storms

* One of the Very Few All Female Demon Hierarchies.
* Leviathan - The Chaos Dragon
* Barbelo - Unknown
* Proserpine - Destroyer
* Astarte - Queen of spirits of the dead
* Agrat-bat-mahlaht - One of Satan's wives and demoness of whores
* Eisheth Zenunim - Same as above
* Lilith - Satan's favorite wife
* Naamah - demoness of seduction

Richard Dukante's Hierarchy (1963)
* Unsere - (f) Fertility and Sorcery
* Delepitore - (f) Demoness of Sorcery Enlightement
* Satanchia - Grand Genreal (War)
* Agaliarept - Assistant Grand General (War)
* Lucifage - High Command (Control)
* Flereous - Fire Elemental
* Lucifer - Air Elemental
* Leviathan - Water Elemental
* Belial - Earth Elemental
* Beelzebuth - Lord of insects
* Belphegore - Master of Armorment and Weaponry
* Mesphito - Keeper of the book of death
* Amducious - The destroyer
* Asmodeus - Demon of Lust
* Sonnielion - (f) Demoness of hate
* Abbadon - Advisor
* Ammon - demon of domination
* Mammon - Demon of Avarice
* Rosier - Demon of love
* Ashtaroth - (f) Preistess of friendship
* Eurynomous - Demon of Death
* Verrine - Demon of Health
* Verrier - (f) Demoness of plants and herbalism
* Ronwe - Demon of Knowledge
* Babeal - Keeper of Graves

Demons quoted during exorcism and case of collective possession:
Astaroth, Essas, Celsus, Acaos, Cédon, Asmodeus, Leviathan, Balam, Isacaron,
Behemoth, Alexh, Zabulon, Nephtalius, Cham, Uriel, Achas, Grésil, Amand
Lucifer, Beelzebuth, Leviathan, St Michael, Béhérie and 24 other spirits

Species of Demons, as Described by Alphonse de Spina (1467)
* Fates, who alter destiny
* Poltergeists, who cause mischief
* Incubi and Succubi, who stimulate lust and perversion
* Marching Hordes, who bring about war
* Familiars, who assist witches
* Nightmares, who disturb sleep through bad dreams
* Demons formed from Human Semen
* Disguised Demons
* Demons who Assail the Saintly
* Demons who Instigate Witchcraft (black arts/black magic)

The Numbers of the Beast(s)

Demons are said to be great in numbers. While it is impossible to count the number of angels (Revelation 5:11; Hebrews 12:22; Daniel 7:10), the fallen angels were apparently a third of all these (Revelation 12:4,9).

According to Joanes Weirus in "De praetistigiis" published in 1568, there are 7 451 926 demons, organized in 111 legions of 6666 demons and ruled by 72 princes of demons.

Fromenteau in “Le cabinet du Roy de France“ (1581) is very close to that number. An inventory supposedly made by sorcecers has yielded 7 409 127 demons and 72 princes.

According to Wier in “Pseudomania daemonum” there are 6 legions of 66 cohorts each, divided into 666 companies of 6666 individuals which comes to 1 758 640 176 demons. They are governed by an Emperor, 7 kings, 23 Dukes, 13 Marquees, 10 Counts and 11 Presidents.

Last but not least, a popular method of calculation is to multiply the number of Pythagorus by 6, i.e 1234321 x 6 = 7 405 926 demons, a number very close to Wier and Fromenteau’s conclusions.

Periods of Increased Demon Activity

Some historians of times past believed that there were cycles during which demonic activity increased, and used this theory to explain various occurrences, much in the same way as today's economic historians might explain historical events in terms of trade, productivity and other factors. These older historians saw a rise in demonic activity accompanying such occurrences as the destruction of Jerusalem, the fall of Rome and the French Revolution, and would in all likelihood also have viewed the demonic theory at work in relation to the rise of Nazism and World War II.

In the end, I feel that it is up to the individual and to their belief system as to weather or not anything holds power over you.   This has been an accounting of demon's as recorded through the ages, intended as an educational text only and should no way be intended as proof of the existence of any form of malevolent  entities.  Research into the paranormal is not to perpetrate fear into the unknown, but to enlighten, educate and search for certain truths.

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